The RO's accession to the OECD is a major objective of the Romanian foreign policy. The RO has formally applied for OECD membership during previous enlargement exercises, namely in April 2004 and November 2012, and has renewed it annually since 2016.

Currently, the RO's relationship with the OECD is materialized in:

Participation in the OECD working structures: RO participates as a member or associate in 22 committees (procedures are ongoing for another 3), and as a guest to more than 40; RO also adhered to 54 OECD legal instruments and applied for adherence to 12 more.

Initiate and carry out projects in partnership with the OECD or its Member States. The projects carried out in partnership with the organization involve, in particular, the performance of "peer review" sectoral evaluations and the financing of studies and programs in specific fields in which Romanian experts can also participate. The purpose of the programmes is to obtain expertise in sectors of national interest of economic governance and/or to promote objectives in areas and geographical regions of common interest to RO and the OECD.

The latest major collaboration projects Romania - OECD started or completed in 2021/2022 are: "OECD Codes of Liberalisation of Capital Movements and of Current Invisible Operations"; "OECD's International Programme for Action on Climate"; "Capacity building in the field of public governance - a coordinated approach of the Centre of the Government of Romania "; " Corporate governance of state-owned enterprises (SOE)'; "Romania's Economic Outlook" (phase 2); RO-OECD cooperation in the field of Development Assistance; "Eurasia Competitiveness Program"; "Strengthening co-ordination and strategic direction with Sub-Saharan Africa (ECOWAS)".

On September 1, 2016, by Decision of the Prime Minister, the Inter-ministerial Committee for the coordination of Romania's relations with the OECD was created. It consists of representatives of all institutions that participate in the activity of the OECD structures or manage collaboration programs with the organization. Currently, the Committee is coordinated by the Prime Minister of Romania, and the General Secretariat of the Government provides the technical secretariat.

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